Thursday, 2 March 2017

WIP - Early Landsknechts

During my ramblings on this blog I have mentioned a few times how it would be great if a manufacturer would produce some early Landsknechts, representing those that would have fought in the earlier clashes of the Italian Wars. I have been watching The Assault Groups progress on just such figures for a few years now and was keen to get started on them when they were released at the end of last year, . If you have followed this blog for a while, you will know I like to try and get into the finer details of the sometimes quite outlandish styles of both the Landsknechts and the Reisläufer. So while I paint my way through a big block of these colourful chaps it is a good time to look at some contemporary images of the early Landsknechts and compare them to the figures TAG have made to represent them.

Most wargamers are familiar with Landsknechts. They are an iconic troop type with their puffed and slashed doublet and hose, exaggerated cod pieces, large two handed swords, beards and jauntily worn hats. Of course this is a stereotype. They were seen on European battlefields for nearly a century and during this time, unsurprisingly, their fashions changed radically. What interests me, especially as a 15th Century reenactor, is how they took the late 15th Century doublet and hose, worn in the 1490s, and by 1500 were already starting to demonstrate a style that was quite radical in comparison.

There are lots of images that show this development and show what these troops would have looked like from the late 1490s through to around 1510, the period I think these miniatures best represent. I have included quite a lot of such images below. I hope you don't find it overkill, but personally I love these early pictures and find it fascinating to pick out the little details. These details can often be seen in other contemporary art that is in a completely different format or to a very different standard but helps to give further credence to some of the styles or fashion quirks that initially seem quite bizarre.

Before continuing to discuss these early Landsknecht styles it is worth pointing out their relationship to the Reisläufer or Swiss mercenaries. The Landsknecht were initially developed as a response to the Swiss in the 1480s, following their victories over the Burgundians in the 1470s. While the Reisläufer are seen as distinct from the Landsknecht, which was undoubtedly the case, they were still technically part of the Holy Roman Empire and it is hard to tell how much cross pollination there was in terms of their style and that of the Landsknechts, especially those raised in South Germany. I have attempted to discuss the difference in appearance of the Landsknechts and Swiss on this blog before: Who influenced who and were they really that different are probably impossible questions to answer, especially in the first decade of the Sixteenth Century, but they are questions worth bearing in mind as well.

Infantry from the Kriegsbuch, 1496

What I love about this first image, from the Kriegsbuch of 1496, is that although the style of art still looks essentially very late medieval, some of the early Landsknecht fashions can already been seen. Apart from the soldiers in full harness, all appear to have a leg left bare, wearing just "breeches" and not the entire lower part or "stocking" of their hose. The musicians especially, with their plumed hats and part coloured outfits are starting to look like more like the classic Landsknechts most, well most wargamers at least, would recognise.

Beheading of John the Baptist c.1500 Master MZ Munich

As we move more definitely into the 16th century, there are plenty of contemporary images that start to demonstrate a clear style for the Landsknechts. The large puffs and slashes with lots of material showing through are not yet apparent but smaller puffs and slashes certainly are. To me it seems the puffed shoulders look very similar to the 15th century maheutres or mahoitres that can be seen in Burgundian and French chronicles of the 1470s and 1480s. Perhaps showing that these type of clothes don't just spring from nowhere but are following developments in the 15th century.

The doublets start to become more unique in the way a large part of the chest and back is left uncovered with just the lining showing. Alternatively a lighter "coat" is worn over the doublet. It is hard to tell. From the beheading image above and the Dürer images below it seems that the former is the case - that the doublet is essentially split in two with the chest and back showing a different material from the rest of the garment. It looks to be the lining as it appears to be underneath the shoulders and sleeves. The clothes look so tight that it seems difficult to see them as separate garments. Saying that however, a study of the Zeugbuch images would argue the opposite. That the Landsknechts do indeed where tight short coats over their doublet and hose.

Dürer Landsknechts c.1500
Dürer Landsknechts 1500-1503
Dürer Landsknecht Standard Bearer c.1502-1503

Arquebusiers from the Zeugbuch, 1502

Landsknecht Pikeman, Zeugbuch 1502

Landsknecht Halberdier, Zeugbuch 1502, note the bizarre octopus like sleeves!

Landsknecht "Doppelhaken" and crew, Zeugbuch 1502, as in the image above one of the crew has quite bizarre octopus like sleeves.

Landsknecht "Doppelhaken" and crew, Zeugbuch 1502

Landsknecht Arquebusier, Zeugbuch 1502

From as early as the 1496 Kriegsbuch it seems that the hose are no longer always worn as a single garment but instead are separated into "breeches" and then lower "stockings". This is clearly demonstrated in lots of the contemporary art. The Assault Group have done a fantastic job of depicting plenty of Landsknechts in these multi part hose, sometimes with them unlaced, sometimes with them rolled down and sometimes just wearing the breeches with one leg left bare.

When first looking at these images sometimes quite bizzare details seem to simply be artistic licence. A good example of this are the octopus like sleeves that two of the Landsknechts in the Zeugbuch are wearing. This is definitely one of the more extreme Landsknecht quirks that I have seen and doesn't seem to appear in many other pieces of art from this period. However, if you look closely at the officer in one of Paul Dolnsteins excellent sketches from c.1504 (see below), he is indeed wearing exactly the same style of doublet or coat with sleeves that end in these really quite impractical tenticles! It does seem that some of them dressed like that.

Landsknecht Ensign and Officer, Paul Dolnsteins diary, c.1504. Note the lower hose laced to the breeches and the sleeves of the officer.

Landsknechts at practise with pikes, Paul Dolnsteins diary, c.1504

Landsknechts duelling with pikes, Paul Dolnsteins diary, c.1504

Landsknecht Standard Bearer and Officer, Paul Dolnsteins diary, c.1504

Those images from the very early 1500s that are in colour are particularly useful as another Landsknecht trait was their love of colourful outfits. In my post on Mounted Crossbowmen from the start of the 16th Century I used some images taken from Kriegsbuch, a superb blog by Daniel S. I have again returned to this source and used some of his photos of a painting from 1502 illustrating a conflict between the city of Nuremburg and the forces of Kasimir von Bradenburg-Kulmbach. The two posts that discuss the infantry can be found here: and here . From these images and from those of Diebold Schillings Illustrated Chronicle, also shown below, it seems that although some Landsknechts wore extremely colourful multi part and striped outfits, others were less outlandish. In these images they are also shown in one coloured doublet and hose. Again this could be artistic licence with the artist simply choosing not to show all of them in these more complex designs simply to save time. The Zeugbuch, however, shows both simpler and more complex styles, supporting the argument that they weren't all quite so flamboyant.

Detail of German Infantry with a captive man at arms from a painting of 1502 showing a battle between the forces of the the city of Nuremburg and Kasimir von Brandenburg-Kulmbach

Detail from the same painting as above showing German Infantry, 1502. Note how many of them are shown in outfits of one colour.

Another detail from the painting depicting the battle before the gates of Nuremburg, showing German infantry c.1502

Landsknechts, early 1500s, from the Illustrated Chronicle by Diebold Schilling, note how they are wearing the red cross of the Swabian League rather than the Hapsburg saltire.

Landsknechts, early 1500s, from the Illustrated Chronicle by Diebold Schilling. It may simply be artistic licence but in this image they are shown in much less flamboyant outfits.

A further signature of the Landsknechts is the Katzbalger. The short sidearm that they wore, often quite provocatively. What is interesting about the very early Landsknechts is that they carried a style of sword that was developing into the Katzbalger but was not quite yet at that distinctive style. In most of these images, swords with "S" shaped crossguards can be seen but the more horizontal S shaped guards of the true Katzbalger have not yet developed. Furthermore the blades of the swords are still relatively long in many of the images, the Katzbalger of the 1510s and 1520s was a relatively short bladed weapon. The image below from "The Mocking of Christ" shows one of these swords very clearly. The one worn by this Landsknecht in 1509 already has a shorter blade but the crossguards are still in a vertical "S" rather than the more horizontal "S" or figure of eight horizontal guard that came later. The Assault Group figures have captured this detail really nicely and all of the swords have these "S" shaped guards.

Landsknecht from Lucas van Leydens "The Mocking of Christ" 1509

So how have I chosen to start painting up these figures? Despite my loathing of painting fine detail I have really had to bite the bullet on this unit and paint lots and lots of stripes! A quick glance at the contemporary images and it is undeniable that they loved all sorts of vertical, diagonal and horizontal stripes. No examples of horizontally striped miniatures have been included yet, but I am working on some at the moment. I still think the horizontal stripes look odd but one look at the Zeugbuch Arquebusiers or a few of Paul Dolnsteins companions and it is clear that they did wear them.

A detail that has been left off is painting the Hapsburg saltire on any of these miniatures, mainly in case I want to shove them into the back ranks of a Reisläufer block. Interestingly in the Diebold Schilling images shown above they wear red crosses rather than saltires but are marching under the Hapsburg saltire - my guess is that the red cross is for the Swabian League but I may be wrong. The saltires don't seem universal in the contemporary images so I am happy to leave them off.

Early Landsknechts showing off their stripes and in "breeches" with the lower hose or "stockings" unlaced or not worn at all.

The Assault Group Early Landsknechts all carrying swords with "S" shaped cross guards.

In some images of early Landsknechts they are shown in quite simple, one coloured, doublet and hose. I have chosen to paint up some of the figures in this more simple style.

Of course a few head swaps using Perry Miniatures plastic heads from their Wars of the Roses range had to be made. I wanted to increase the already quite wide variety in the figures and as they are for the very early 1500s was keen to include some late 15th century sallets and steel skulls.  There are museum examples of painted munition quality helmets from c.1500 so a few painted sallets have also made it into the pike block. The pikes have yet to be painted up and added but an assortment of polearms is also carried by some of the troops.

A few Landsknechts with assorted polearms and one two handed swordsman

For this post, in an attempt to better illustrate some of my ramblings, I thought I would try something different by including a couple of images that show how the miniatures try to reflect what is seen in the art of the period. On a PC they will probably work more effectively as the image can be looked at in more detail but if this is read on a phone or Ipad I am guessing they may look slightly strange! Below these images is another way of  attempting the same result, simply by having the contemporary image before the photo of the figures. I am not entirely sure these collage style images work, let me know what you think. 

I still have another three bases of pike to complete and then a couple of skirmishing bases of arquebusiers, but feel like the hardest part of this block is complete. Now to get back to painting some more of those bloody stripes!

The contemporary images of early Landsknechts show them wearing these open doublets or perhaps they are short coats over a tighter doublet. Often the material of the hose carries through to this. I have tried to reflect this on some of the miniatures and have included details from contemporary images to, hopefully, illustrate what I am trying to achieve!

All sorts of hat styles are shown in contemporary images. I like the fact The Assault Group have chosen to show these particularly odd fur looking ones as seen in these images, it seems often worn by officers.

Landsknecht Musicians, Paul Dolnsteins diary, c.1504

Landsknecht Musicians, early 1500s, hopefully they give a similar impression to those sketched by Paul Dolnstein!

The block of early Landsknechts so far

The progress so far on The Assault Group early Landsknechts

Wednesday, 1 February 2017

Tudor Bow and Bill 1513

Here is the next addition for the 1513 English invasion of France. Ten bases of archers and another two Tudor command bases. As with my previous attempt at early 16th century archers,, I have once again been back on Ebay searching for old Empire Citadel miniatures to strip of paint and convert into Tudor archers. Most were picked up for a decent price although I did have to pay over the odds for a few to complete the numbers. Of course as soon as I had bought these some very cheap lots came up which I jumped on so I will be fielding some more of these figures. These will be on Skirmish bases to represent bowmen in a looser formation.

The flags are all from Pete's excellent France 1513 Tudor flags range, They are based on research done by Stuart for his superb collection of 1513 Tudors, . I wouldn't have had another attempt at an Early Tudor army without these flags. I think they are Pete's best work to date and they really complement the figures and bring out the flavour of the English in this period. In fact they have even had me contemplating collecting Wars of the Roses armies again but that will have to wait!

Tudor Archers under the standard of Sir Henry Willoughby

Tudor Archers, 1513 under the standard of Sir Henry Willoughby

The first couple of photos show just the archers and the new command bases under the standard of Sir Henry Willoughby. He accompanied the Marquess of Dorset on his Guienne campaign (if it can be called that!) of 1512 as well as serving in the rearward in the 1513 invasion of France. I was rushed for time to get these photos and had some issues with the light so I hope they look bright enough.

As with my first attempt at these old Citadel figures I have made a few head swaps, added some Perry swords and bucklers to them and changed a few hairstyles and beards with green stuff. I have also added quivers to a few of the figures. Quivers don't seem to have been carried by English archers in the 15th century but came back into fashion in the early 16th. As all these miniatures already have a few arrows tucked in their belts I didn't want to add quivers to all of them but felt half a dozen or so would be a suitable addition. The quivers are metal pieces from Front Rank, they are quite large but that works well with these miniatures as they are about the same size as Front Ranks 28mms. A couple of pictures below show the quivers and a few of the other changes.

 A base of archers showing the added swords and a quiver

A base of archers showing the quiver added

Of course I could not resist pairing the archers up with the recently completed billmen to see how they work together. The old citadel figures are quite large but that doesn't seem to show too much when they are all based up. While the billmen are six to a base the archers are in a looser formation of three to a base, they just don't look right in a closer formation. The first standards in the below photos are for Sir Charles Brandon, who fought in the Kings ward in 1513 as well as commanding English armies in France in the 1520s and 1544. For the 1520s campaigns these figures would still be suitable. For the 1540s however fashions and warfare had changed and the troops would look more like these:

The other block of bill and bow marches under the standards of two commanders present in 1513. Sir Richard Carew, Captain of the Calais Garrison and Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset who led the earlier Guienne expedition and campaigned in Scotland in the 1520s. I prepared these standards first as these commanders provide scope for Skirmishes in the Calais Pale in the case of Carew while Greys men could be seen aiding the Spanish in Guienne or raiding the Scottish borders.

Bill and Bow under the standards of Sir Charles Brandon

Archers and Billmen under the standards of Sir Charles Brandon

The command base, the front two figures are conversions of old Citadel Miniatures

While scouring Ebay for these bowmen I picked up some other old Citadel figures to use for the command bases. The chap pictured above holding his sword out stretched is an old Empire Artillery crewman with the linstock replaced with an Assault Group sword. Granted his head gear is a little Germanic but I couldn't resist including him in that base coat. The chap next to him is a very old Citadel fighter miniature with the sword and plume replaced. I think he works really well as an early 16th century man-at-arms in half harness.

As mentioned above I will work on some skirmishing archers for this collection. It also needs a few Border Horsemen and some artillery with the crew in the Tudor Base Coats to complete it. Possibly some marching bowmen as well as I have a few different figures in mind for this. When accompanied by some Landsknechts and Gendarmes they should make quite a force!

Bill and Bow under the standards of Sir Richard Carew, captain of the Calais Garrison and Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset

Tudor Bow and Bill, the front standard is for Sir Richard Carew

Tudor Bill and Bow, the front, yellow and black standard, is for Sir Richard Carew, while the rear standard is for Thomas Grey.

The two blocks of Bow and Bill

The Archers and Billmen for 1513

Tudor Billmen and Bowmen for Henry VIIIs army of 1513

Monday, 2 January 2017

Another Command Base

To start off the New Year here is a quick post to show the second of the Steel Fist miniatures I've completed from the 16th century dismounted knights kickstarter. I have used this figure, along with a few others that did not make it onto bases during the great rebasing of 2015 to create a second command base. Unlike last months post this base is for slightly later - around 1510 to the 1520s. The idea is that a dismounted commander, accompanied by a valet with his banner, is discussing plans with some Landsknecht Captains. I have tried to make the composition demonstrate that they are in conversation with each other. The banner is from Petes fantastic flag range but as normal my flags are interchangeable so I have painted the figures up as generic officers. This means the base has plenty of potential uses, just change the flag for the corresponding commander.

As a brief aside, from what I have read about armies during the Italian Wars it seems that the overall command structure could be fairly informal. An army commander, normally a high ranking noble, would be appointed in the absence of a monarch as the operational commander, so to speak, but many of the decisions would be made by a more informal committee. This was composed of other nobles, appointed in command of the cavalry and infantry sections of the armies various "native" troops, and of the leaders of the various mercenary forces which made up the army, often constituting a major part of it. An example of this is in Blaise de Monlucs memoirs where he talks of the meetings between himself and the other captains during the Siege of Siena in the 1550s. From what I can recall, despite being in a nasty siege, they seem to find a lot of amusement from the fact that Monluc has to redden his face artificially to create the impression of being in better health than he actually is when addressing the soldier! The problems of this kind of command are however clearly demonstrated by battles like La Bicocca where the Swiss captains under Albert Von Stein demanded a head on immediate attack of the Imperial position, against Lautrec, the overall French commanders wishes. This of course led to disaster.

I want to make the most of every figure from the first Steel Fist kickstarter so will try and do a different base for each, they won't all be command ones. I think I will use some of the more action posed knights for attacking halberdier bases of Landsknechts or other infantry that can be fitted into the Pike Blocks. I haven't decided yet. I have also received the Gendarme figures from the second Steel Fist kickstarter and they are magnificent sculpts. It will be a while before they get painted though. Hopefully I will have some more English up next as I am making some pretty good progress on a set of English Archers for the 1513 campaign.

Happy New Year!

Command Base using one of Steel Fists dismounted 16th Century Knights

Command Base under a Papal Banner of Julius II